During the ‘long nineteenth century’ Europe was crisscrossed by wars, convulsed by revolutions and turned upside down by the new industrial world. The royal families of the continent contended with liberal parliaments, while the new politics of socialism and communism threatened them both. Europe’s empires consolidated their grasp on the world, establishing and consolidating colonies across the globe. These colonies in turn changed the way Europeans saw themselves. National and imperial competition saw Europe become a ‘powderkeg’, awaiting a single spark.
This topic looks at Europe during the period in which it moved from the aristocratic Ancien Régime through to the fateful decision in July 1914 to go to war. It will use primary materials from the period and the latest scholarship to explain a period of radical change in Europe and how this change affected the world.
This topic aims to:
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